In contrast to abstinence only programmes, programmes that promote the usage of condoms greatly reduce the risk of acquiring HIV, especially when such programmes are culturally customized behavioural interventions targeting people at highest risk of HIV infection, say researchers in an accompanying editorial. They suggest that in the usa priority should be directed at culturally sensitive, sex particular, behavioural interventions that focus on Black and Hispanic patients in clinics for sexually transmitted attacks, men who have sex with men, and adolescents becoming treated for drug misuse who are at highest risk of acquiring HIV.The hazard ratios for the comparisons of interleukin-2 plus antiretroviral therapy and antiretroviral therapy alone were estimated from Cox models with an individual indicator for treatment group. Data on the primary end stage were summarized for prespecified subgroups defined according to baseline characteristics. A total of 12 subgroup analyses were prespecified. The heterogeneity of hazard-ratio estimates between subgroups was assessed by including an conversation term between treatment and subgroup in extended Cox models. The outcomes of subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution; a significant conversation could be due to chance, because there is no adjustment made to the type 1 error for the number of subgroups examined.